Fri Invandring Argumentative Essay

New #cigi essay by sir paul tucker aims to spark debate around objectives for financial stability #policy #finreg

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Fri invandring eller öppna gränser är en politisk åsikt som innebär att folk borde få migrera varthelst de vill, utan några substantiella gränser och barriärer. Även om det inte är samma sak som frihandel liknar koncepten varandra, och företräds båda av fri marknad-ekonomer som anser att nationalekonomi inte är ett nollsummespel och att fria marknader, enligt dem, är det bästa sättet att skapa ett rättvisare och mer balanserat ekonomiskt system, vilket därigenom ökar de allmänna ekonomiska förtjänsterna för alla berörda parter.[1] Många libertarianer, liberaler, socialister och anarkister förespråkar fri invandring, oaktat de annars stora skillnaderna mellan de olika ideologierna.[2] Från ett människorättsligt perspektiv kan fri invandring ses som ett komplement till artikel 13 i FN:s deklaration om de mänskliga rättigheterna:

  1. Var och en har rätt att fritt förflytta sig och välja bostadsort inom varje stats gränser.
  2. Var och en har rätt att lämna varje land, även sitt eget, och att återvända till sitt land.[3][4]

Argument mot fri invandring är oftast antingen kulturella eller nationalistiska, vilket vissa hävdar vara "xenofobi",[5] alternativt argument som liknar de som används mot frihandel, såsom protektionism. Framförallt kan ett tillflöde av billig arbetskraft lätt deflatera löner för arbetare som redan är etablerade inom en specifik arbetsmarknad, och (åtminstone på kort sikt) ha en negativ påverkan på levnadsstandarden för de mer etablerade arbetarna. Andra kritiker är rädda att det skulle vara orättvist mot nuvarande hemägare om ett tillflöde av nya invånare drog ner egendomsvärdena och områdets attraktivitet snabbt, eller, å andra sidan, ökande efterfrågan på att bo i staden så mycket att hemägaren inte skulle lyckas betala de höjda skatterna från högre egendomsvärden. Frimarknadsekonomer tror dock att konkurrens är väsentligt i ett välmående ekonomiskt system, och att alla kortsiktiga negativa influenser på individuella ekonomiska faktorer som orsakas av fri invandring är mer än rättfärdigade av utsikterna till långsiktig tillväxt för ekonomin som helhet.[6] Andra argument är exempelvis den allmänna påverkan på miljön, infrastruktur, befolkningstäthet, regeringskostnader och livskvalitén i allmänhet.

Fri invandring och krig[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Kaos i samband med krig kan leda till nedbrytandet av gränser och de facto leda till fri invandring. De naturliga försöken att fly från strid, eller fly en erövrande fiende, kan snabbt leda till miljoner flyktingar. Till och med när gränskontroller upprättats kan de övermannas av blott antalet människor. När de placerats i flyktingläger kan dessa motvilliga immigranter ta decennier på sig för att antingen återbördas eller neutraliseras i det nya landet. Så har fallet varit med bland annat palestinier i Jordanien. Kalla kriget innebar en paradoxal migrationssituation där kommuniststaterna ofta förbjöd emigration, medan den "fria världen" fritt tog emot avhoppare. Denna policy kvarstår för kubaner[7] och hmongfolket, som båda tillåts vissa former av fri invandring till USA på grund av deras automatiska flyktingstatus.

Fri invandring i olika länder[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Fram till 1900-talet hade USA och Kanada policier som tillät nästan helt fri invandring för européer. I 1924 års invandringslag upptog den amerikanska kongressen stränga invandringskontroller, framförallt för de som kom från utanför västra Europa. Dessa regler blev senare mer tillåtande i 1965 års invandringslag. I dag är fri invandring tillåten inom EU[8], Nordiska rådet, EFTA, EES, ECOWAS, OSS (med undantag och restriktioner) och i vissa bilaterala överenskommelser, som mellan Nya Zeeland och Australien.

Anarkistisk syn[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Anarkister är emot härskare och påtvingat politiskt monopol inom ett större geografiskt område, som Staten. Områden ägs direkt av individer. Därför skulle ett anarkistiskt samhälle inte ha några de facto bestämda gränser och då fri rörlighet in och ut ur områden så länge det inte bryter mot äganderätten. Ett anarkistiskt samhälle är därför för fri invandring.

Referenser[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Den här artikeln är helt eller delvis baserad på material från engelskspråkiga Wikipedia
  1. ^The movement of people and goods is linked, Binod Khadria, BBC News, 13 april 2004.
  2. ^Immigration Control: What about the workers?Arkiverad 7 juli 2007 hämtat från the Wayback Machine., Paul Marks, Free Life No. 19, sida 12, november, 1993.
  3. ^Antoine Pécoud and Paul de Guchteneire (Eds): MIGRATION WITHOUT BORDERS, Essays on the Free Movement of People (Berghahn Books, 2007)
  4. ^Översättning från FN:s deklaration om de mänskliga rättigheterna på Wikipedia: Se artikeln
  5. ^Krikorian Borders are the line between 'us' and 'them', Mark Krikorian, BBC News, 13 april 2004.
  6. ^In Defense of Free MigrationArkiverad 31 augusti 2011 hämtat från the Wayback Machine., Richard M. Ebeling, The Future of Freedom Foundation, juni 1991
  7. ^[1]
  8. ^”Arkiverade kopian”. Arkiverad från originalet den 29 mars 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070329084641/http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/s17000.htm. Läst 8 april 2007. 

Vidare läsning[redigera | redigera wikitext]

  • Abizadeh, Arash. 2008. "Democratic Theory and Border Coercion: No Right to Unilaterally Control Your Own Borders." Political Theory 35.1: 37-65.
  • Bader, Veit. 2005. "The Ethics of Immigration." Constellations 12.3: 331-61.
  • Barry, Brian, and Robert E. Goodin, eds. 1992. Free Movement: Ethical Issues in the Transnational Migration of People and of Money. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Blake, Michael. 2003. "Immigration." In A Companion to Applied Ethics, ed. R. G. Frey och C. H. Wellman. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Bosniak, Linda. 2006. The Citizen and the Alien: Dilemmas of Contemporary Membership. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Brubaker, W. R, ed. 1989. Immigration and the Politics of Citizenship in Europe and North America. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
  • Carens, Joseph H. 1987. "Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders." The Review of Politics 49.2: 251-73.
  • Chang, Howard F. 1997. "Liberalized Immigration as Free Trade: Economic Welfare and the Optimal Immigration Policy." University of Pennsylvania Law Review 145.5: 1147-244.
  • Cole, Phillip. 2000. Philosophies of Exclusion: Liberal Political Theory and Immigration. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Dauvergne, Catherine. 2008. Making People Illegal: What Globalization Means for Migration and Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dummett, Michael. 2001. On Immigration and Refugees. London: Routledge.
  • Ethics and Economics. 2006. Volym 4.1. Special issue on immigration.
  • Gibney, Mark, ed. 1988. Open Borders? Closed Societies? The Ethical and Political Issues. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Heath, Joseph. 1997. "Immigration, Multiculturalism, and the Social Contract." Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 10.2: 343-61.
  • Miller, David, and Sohail Hashmi, eds. 2001. Boundaries and Justice: Diverse Ethical Perspectives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Miller, David. 2005. "Immigration: The Case for Limits." In Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics, ed. A. I. Cohen and C. H. Wellman. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Riley, Jason L. (2008). Let Them In: The Case for Open Border. Gotham. ISBN 1592403492 
  • Schwartz, Warren F., ed. 1995. Justice in Immigration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Swain, Carol M., ed. 2007. Debating Immigration. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Torpey, John. 2000. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Walzer, Michael. 1983. Spheres of Justice: A Defence of Pluralism and Equality. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Wellman, Christopher Heath. 2008. "Immigration and Freedom of Association." Ethics 119: 109-141. ewwww

Externa länkar[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Invandringen till USA var från många länder nästan helt fri i många år.

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