Based on the documents, the Hand and the Roman had varying attitudes towards tech-nology. On one hand, Han China had a universally positive view of the benefits of tech-nology. On the other hand, Rome had a more divided view towards technology - some Romans supported it. Other Romans rejected and shunned it. On one hand, Han China had a universally positive view of the benefits of technology. The Han government established water conservation guidelines concerning people for flood prevention. (Doc 1) Given that the Han requested experienced people for flood prevention technology shows their concern and attentiveness to and for technology. century earlier, a Han government official, Huan Guan, wrote the government criticizing the crudeness of government-controlled technology while praising the prowess of those handmade by workers for personal use. (Doc 2) Given the officials’ concern for the tool quality’s impact on the salt and iron trade shows the importance of technology to the economy of China. In the later Han era (20 C.E.), Huan Tan, an upper-class Han philo-sopher, favorably recorded the clever improvements on the pestle and mortar, which “in-
Presentation on theme: "FROM THE 2007 WORLD HISTORY AP EXAMINATION (COURTESY OF COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD): 1. Using the documents, analyze Han and Roman attitudes toward."— Presentation transcript:
1 FROM THE 2007 WORLD HISTORY AP EXAMINATION (COURTESY OF COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD): 1. Using the documents, analyze Han and Roman attitudes toward technology. Identify one additional type of document and explain briefly how it would help your analysis.
2 E. Napp
7 Doc #1 - Han government official - 2nd Century B.C.E. Importance of water, waterways, and other engineering needs Government authority over development of these needs; Seen as the proper scope of government to regulate Attitude - technology is essential part of empire and requires government intervention
8 Doc #2 - Huan Guan, Han government official, Discourses on Salt and Iron - 1st Century B.C.E. Government created sub-standard tools due to monopolies As a government official, Huan Guan implies that good government should rectify the situation; Confucianism Misinterpreted as negative about technology, rather he is negative about the government’s role Attitude - technology is essential part of peasant production, responsibility of government to support E. Napp
9 Huan Guan (Doc #2) embodies the Confucian Han view that technology is good, as long as the government uses technology to benefit the people. Crude or brittle tools are of no help, and reflect poorly on the government. Here the evidence from a document is used to support the thesis/topic sentence. The document is used to support the essay, rather than the other way around E. Napp
10 Doc #3 - Huan Tan, Han philosopher, New Discourses - about 20 C.E. Listing Fuxi as mythical emperor as inventor of pestle and mortar Listing of progress of technology after emperor’s first invention At time misinterpreted as Fuxi as author Attitude - technology is a “gift” from enlightened emperors; Confucian benevolence through progress E. Napp
11 Doc #4 - History of the Early Han Dynasty, government-sponsored history - about 200 C.E. Governor of province, Tu Shih, was peaceful, destroyed evildoers, planner, and loved common people Developed labor-saving device, water-powered blowing engine, to facilitate cast-iron agricultural implements At times misinterpreted Fuxi as the author Attitude - technology is a “gift” from enlightened leadership; Confucian benevolence and harmony E. Napp
12 Doc #5 - Cicero, Roman political leader, On Duty, - 1st Century B.C.E. Those who work with hands are “vulgar” or common; gentlemen do not work with their hands Craftsmen and “hired workers” are not fit occupations for gentlemen Attitude - technology is necessary, but not enlightened or fit for enlightened minds E. Napp
13 Doc #6 Plutarch, Greek-born Roman citizen and high official - 1st Century B.C.E. Regarding Roman leader Gaius Gracchus’ road building enterprises Glowing report of roads and amenities encouraged by Gracchus for imperial good, no mention of populace At time misinterpreted Gracchus as the author Attitude - technology has a practical/pragmatic side, but also one of aesthetics E. Napp
14 Doc #7 Seneca, Roman philosopher and adviser to Emperor Nero - 1st Century C.E. Individual technology’s creator and creation is less important than its use Differentiation between those who work with hands and those who work with their mind Attitude - technology is necessary and takes “smarts,” but not enlightened E. Napp
15 Doc #8 Frontinus, Roman general, governor of Britain, water commissioner for Rome - 1st Century C.E. Glowing report of aqueducts and their uses in city of Rome Attitude - emphasizes the practical and aesthetic nature of Roman technology over Egyptian or Greek E. Napp
18 AND DON’T FORGET THE MISSING VOICE The “missing voice” is the point of view that is missing in the documents For example, were any of the sources from women? Were any of the sources from peasants? Were any of the sources from the landed gentry? Who was not represented? In order to receive total points for the basic core points, the student must identify one type of additional document needed and for expanded core points, the need for two or more additional document types must be included
19 BUT THE MISSING VOICE CAN ALSO BE A Map A Diagram A Chart with specific information A Journal Entry Docs by women: to explore whether there are similarities or differences in Han/Roman attitudes according to gender Docs by workers: to explore the attitudes of those classes who might be most affected by various technologies or those classes who would do the physical implementation of a new technology Docs with data about the effects various technologies (road building, irrigation) to help explain the positive/negative attitudes Docs re: the economic effects of technologies to help explain the positive/negative attitudes Most importantly, the student must explain why the missing document would be useful in answering the question.
20 REMEMBER SCORING FOR THE BASIC CORE Acceptable thesis (1 point) Addresses and shows understanding for all (or all but one) of the documents (1 point) Thesis is supported by evidence from all documents or all but one (2 points) -But if only supported by all but two documents, only 1 point Analyzes point of view in two or more documents (1 point) Analyzes documents by clustering them in two or three ways (1 point) Identifies one type of additional document and explains why it is needed (1 point)
21 THE EXPANDED CORE If the student addresses all tasks required for full points in the basic core, the student is eligible for the expanded core points Expanded Core: -Expands beyond the basic core -The student has addressed all aspects of the basic core’s task and provided more information than was required by the basic core
22 Hmmm, it seemed that in three of the four documents concerning the Han, innovation and efficiency regarding technology were encouraged by the elite but in one document, a state monopoly led to inferior technology. Conversely, in two of the four documents concerning the Romans, innovation and technological efficiency were considered negatively yet in two documents, these very traits were praised.
23 TIPS FOR THE THESIS PARAGRAPH Present a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis or at least, an acceptable thesis Correctly identify the nature of the documents. Tell the reader how the documents will be categorized
24 SAMPLE THESIS PARAGRAPH Around the dawn of the 1 st millennium, attitudes toward technology were both self glorifying, however the Han empire in China placed more value upon technology and technological enhancements than did the Roman Empire, as evidenced by the consistent concern on the part of the Han Dynasty over the occasional indifference on the part of the Romans.
25 A NOTHER ? Han China’s attitude toward manufacturing and labor was more open and positive than the Romans who had a more systematic and class-divided society, therefore causing general attitudes of labor and technology to be low. This thesis not only summarizes, it also compares the differences in attitude and even includes an analysis of the reasons behind those differences. This thesis would likely be eligible for the “Expanded Core” (Extra Credit) as a “clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis E. Napp
26 OF COURSE, THERE ARE MANY ROADS There is not one acceptable thesis statement but many Yet an acceptable thesis statement clearly addresses the question, the nature of the documents, and the categorizations which will be employed
27 A DBQ IS GREAT PRACTICE FOR DEVELOPING AN ANALYTICAL MIND